Creation of Linux:
Linux is simply a computer operating system which enables various types of applications on the computer. It is basically a UNIX like operating system which was released first time by Linus Torvaldsin 1991. Creation of Linux operating system did not happen in a day, it took long time and efforts. Torvalds was very curious about the operating system when he was attending the University of Helsinki. He got frustrated by MINIX which was restricted to educational use only at that time. Torvalds created his own operating system Kernel but Kernel was not able to make a better operating system. He started work on his operating system. Torvalds matched the Stallman’s incomplete GNU tools with the kernel and Linux Kernel was created. The Free Software Foundation named this operating system as GNU/Linux to describe it properly, but it faced some controversy which is now popular as the Linux Operating System.
Aim to create Linux: Linux was basically developed with the aim to use this operating in personal computers. It is basically a free operating system based on Intel x86 architecture. Main intension to develop this operating system was the portability. Though this is very similar to other operating systems like Windows but there is some unique feature which made Linux different from other operating systems.
Some important features:
- Linux is a free operating system which can be used on personal computers.
- Linux is the leading operating system for servers, mainframe computers and virtually super computers.
- Linux is also able to run on embedded systems such as smart Phones, tablets, DVR devices, network routers, television, video games and smart watches.
- Linux is freely redistributable.
- It is a multitasking operating system. That means several programs can be run at the same time.
- It has multiuser capability.
- Portability is the main feature Linux, which made it popular with the users. Linux is portable because it can work on all types of hardware.
- Linus is a very secure operating system which provides three types of securities- Authentication, authorization and encryption.
- Linux can run on different CPUs. SO Linux has multiplatform
- Multithreading is another important feature of Linux operating system.
- Linux supports various file systems like Minix, Xenix etc.
- Linux is more compatible with POSIX, system V and BSD.
- Communication is another good feature of Linux. Using this operating system two users can exchange mail, data.
Architecture of Linux: Linux was created with the layered architecture which consists of five following layers:
- Hardware layer: This is the first layer and it contains all peripheral devices such as RAM, CPU, and HDD etc.
- Kernel: This is the second layer of this architecture. This layer directly interacts with the hardware for all input output functions.
- Shell/GCC: This is the third layer which works as an interface between user and kernel. It is responsible for hiding the complexity of kernel functions from the user.
- Application software: This is the fourth layer which gives most of the functionality to users.
- Users: Users means system user who directly interacts with the application and system softwares.
Having these amazing features and easy architecture Linux has become a very successful operating system. Development of this operating system is going on and it is getting improved day by day. Now in various kinds of embedded system is using Linux. Many web services like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Google have faith on Linux. So it is very clear to us that the number of users of Linux operating system are increasing and it will grab the whole technology world within the near future.