Monthly Archives: March 2016

Linux Operating System

Creation of Linux:

Linux is simply a computer operating system which enables various types of applications on the computer. It is basically a UNIX like operating system which was released first time by Linus Torvaldsin 1991. Creation of Linux operating system did not happen in a day, it took long time and efforts. Torvalds was very curious about the operating system when he was attending the University of Helsinki. He got frustrated by MINIX which was restricted to educational use only at that time. Torvalds created his own operating system Kernel but Kernel was not able to make a better operating system. He started work on his operating system. Torvalds matched the Stallman’s incomplete GNU tools with the kernel and Linux Kernel was created. The Free Software Foundation named this operating system as GNU/Linux to describe it properly, but it faced some controversy which is now popular as the Linux Operating System.


Aim to create Linux: Linux was basically developed with the aim to use this operating in personal computers. It is basically a free operating system based on Intel x86 architecture. Main intension to develop this operating system was the portability. Though this is very similar to other operating systems like Windows but there is some unique feature which made Linux different from other operating systems.

Some important features:

  • Linux is a free operating system which can be used on personal computers.
  • Linux is the leading operating system for servers, mainframe computers and virtually super computers.
  • Linux is also able to run on embedded systems such as smart Phones, tablets, DVR devices, network routers, television, video games and smart watches.
  • Linux is freely redistributable.
  • It is a multitasking operating system. That means several programs can be run at the same time.
  • It has multiuser capability.
  • Portability is the main feature Linux, which made it popular with the users. Linux is portable because it can work on all types of hardware.
  • Linus is a very secure operating system which provides three types of securities- Authentication, authorization and encryption.
  • Linux can run on different CPUs. SO Linux has multiplatform
  • Multithreading is another important feature of Linux operating system.
  • Linux supports various file systems like Minix, Xenix etc.
  • Linux is more compatible with POSIX, system V and BSD.
  • Communication is another good feature of Linux. Using this operating system two users can exchange mail, data.

Architecture of Linux: Linux was created with the layered architecture which consists of five following layers:

  • Hardware layer: This is the first layer and it contains all peripheral devices such as RAM, CPU, and HDD etc.
  • Kernel: This is the second layer of this architecture. This layer directly interacts with the hardware for all input output functions.
  • Shell/GCC: This is the third layer which works as an interface between user and kernel. It is responsible for hiding the complexity of kernel functions from the user.
  • Application software: This is the fourth layer which gives most of the functionality to users.
  • Users: Users means system user who directly interacts with the application and system softwares.

Having these amazing features and easy architecture Linux has become a very successful operating system. Development of this operating system is going on and it is getting improved day by day. Now in various kinds of embedded system is using Linux. Many web services like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Google have faith on Linux. So it is very clear to us that the number of users of Linux operating system are increasing and it will grab the whole technology world within the near future.

BSD Operating system

The BSD operating system is genuinely known as BSD/386 and sometimes it is known as BSDi. There are few numbers of operating systems like UNIX cascaded from Barkley Software Distribution Series of Unix variants which were developed at the University of California, Berkeley Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department. It was originally developed by Bill Joy. At present there are four main BSD operating systems and number is increasing day by day.

Four major BSD operating systems are, Free BSD-based, Net BSD-based, Open BSD-based and Dragonfly BSD-based. These four BSD were developed from BSD/386 and 4.4BSD-Lite using various routes. Development of the BSD operating system did not happen in a day, it took long time and all features of this operating system in now improved. BSD operating system is very popular for its reliability evens a famous UNIX programmer and author W. Richard Stevens used this operating system for his own web server.

List of BSD operating systems: As discussed previously, there are four major BSD operating systems which are in current use.

Free BSD-based: Free BSD is a UNIX like operating system cascaded from AT&T by Berkley Software Distribution. It is a lightweight operating system. It was developed with the aim of flexibility. It was designed in this way so that various applications can be run in this operating system. Free BSD has some extraordinary features which are now a necessity in the technology world. It is user friendly, it consists of cutting edge features, and it is highly scalable on the heavy load network server. Free BSD is free, but projects need the license of BSD, but sometimes it accepts non-disclosure agreement. Free BSD provides high quality, high –end embedded system and good web server support. The basic focus of Free BSD was on a narrow set of architectures. The development of Free BSD started in 2007 and it is still going on.

Net BSD: Net BSD is also a UNIX like operating system descended from Berkley Software Distribution. It is basically a freely redistributable and open source version. It was designed in this way so that professionals, researchers, hobbyists can use this operating system. The main intention to develop this operating system is the portability through the use of clear perception between machines depended and machine independent code. Net BSD is able to run on 32 bit and 64 bit processor. It provides well written code, efficiency, stability and perfect design.

Open BSD: Open BSD is also a UNIX like operating system cascaded from Berkley Software Distribution. It was basically derived from Net BSD in 1995. The main aim to develop this operating system is security, user friendly and correctness.

Dragonfly BSD: Dragonfly BSD was basically derived from FreeBSD 4.8. The main aim to develop this OS is to change the kernel architecture and to introduce microkernel architecture which will boost scaling and reliability. It is also applicable in NUMA and cluster systems. Dragonfly BSD originally supports IA-32 and x86-64 platforms. This operating system is user friendly and very easy to use, which was basically developed for multiprocessor infrastructure. Founder of this operating system is Mathew Dillon.

Apart from these four major BSD there is some other kind of BSD. PC BSD and Jun OS are also UNIX like operating system actually derived from FreeBSD.

BSD Router Projects

fdgw (NetBSD/i386 one floppy system)
fdgw is a single floppy version of NetBSD/i386 (currently tested only on i386 1.5 stable and 1.6 stable). It is available in the NetBSD package system at pkgsrc/sysutils/fdgw/ . This allows you to easily build an fdgw image from any netbsd-1-5/netbsd-1-6 branch source tree.

fdgw is a minimal operating system. It can convert an old machine without HDD into a small router or NAT system. It provides several models: natbox, adslrouter, riprouter(IPv4/v6 RIPv1/v2), bridge (available only on NetBSD 1.6), mcastrouter6(IPv6 multicast routing) and proxybox(application level gateway)

The easiest way to get started with fdgw would be to download a pre-made floppy image which can then be customized. Images are available from See .

floppy-1 project
Shaped IP

Micro OpenBSD (?)
one floppy openbsd
soekris (flashdist: embedded OpenBSD installer)
opensoekris (domain exists, but the web content not found ?)
mini soekris
PsygNAT free firewall and NAT router based on OpenBSD/i386.

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